Geographically, the location of this mountain is in the area of the Ijen Mountain complex and became the highest peak of the cluster of mountains. Calculated from the highest point, Mount Raung is the second highest mountain in East Java after Mount Semeru, and became the fourth highest in Java. Raung Mountain Caldera is also the largest dry caldera in Java Island and the second largest in Indonesia after Mount Tambora in West Nusa Tenggara. There are four peak points, namely Peak Flag, Peak 17, Peak Toothpick, and, the highest, Peak True (3.344 m).
Seen from its vegetation, Mount Raung owns Dipterocarp Hill, Dipterokarp Top forest, Montane forest, and Ericaceous forest or mountain forest.
1.1 Kecamatan Tlogosari; 1.2 Kecamatan Sumber Wringin; 1.3 Kecamatan Sempol;
2.1 Kecamatan Songgon; 2.2 Kecamatan Glenmore; 2.3 Kecamatan Kalibaru
3.1 Kecamatan Silo; 3.2 Kecamatan Ledokombo; 3.3 Kecamatan Sumberjambe
1.1.1 Desa Gunosari; 1.1.2 Desa Pakisan
1.2.1 Desa Rejo Agung
1.3.1 Desa Jampit
2.1.1 Desa Sumberarum
2.2.1 Desa Margomulyo
2.3.1 Desa Kalibaruwetan
3.1.1 Desa Sumberjati
3.2.1 Desa Sumber Salak; 3.2.2 Desa Slateng;
3.3.1 Desa Gunung Malang;
Stratovulcano with caldera
a vulcano / active
History of eruption;
The history of Mt. Raung’s first known activity occurred in 1586, in the form of a devastating eruption struck several regions and there were human victims, the next is shown in the table below.
1586; There was a huge explosion and known to the human victims (Verbeek and Fennema, 1896)
1597; Similar eruptions in the eruption of 1586 and recorded human casualties
1638; There was a massive eruption, followed by a massive flood and lava flows that struck the area between K. Stail and K. Klatak. Human casualties reach thousands of people. At that time stood the Kingdom of the White Tiger under Prince Tawangulun (Brouwer, 1913, p.60-65)
1730; The eruption of ash that was accompanied by lava that struck a large area and reported many human casualties
1787 – 1799; The eruption occurred at the time of the Harris Resident government, no further details were found.
1800 – 1808; The eruption occurred during the reign of Resident Malleod, no further details were found.
1812 – 1814; The eruption was accompanied by a roar and ash rain.
1815; There was ash rain in Besuki and Probolinggo between April 4 and 12. Neumann van Padang (1951) doubted the eruption, allegedly this ash rain came from the eruption of G. Tambora in Sumbawa.
1817; Broken soil and human casualties
1838; Faulty soil
1859; On December 14, 1941, there was no further information
1860; The eruption that occurred this year is not known with certainty, allegedly occurred in September (?)
1864; there was a roar and in the darkness of the day, which began on 6 July, presumably possibly caused by ash rain
1881; Clumps of smoke accompanied by a roar, there was a thin ash of rain around Banyuwangi (Ottolander, 1881)
1885; Suspected eruption in June, no further details
1890; There was an eruption from July, August to mid September. Paroximal eruption occurred on 13 September
1896; There was an earthquake in Kayumas (Besuki), a roar followed by ash rain in August
1902; The emergence of the central cone on February 16th
1903 – 1904; There was a roar and roaring fire at the top on November 28 – December 2
1913; There was a lump of smoke on May 10 through December
1915; There was a roar and followed by a cloud of smoke
1916; There was a roar and followed by a cloud of smoke (November, December)
1917; There was a roar and followed by a cloud of smoke
1921; The presence of lava flows within the caldera of February – April
1924; A throw of efflata around the caldera and lava shrine, before February
1927; Smoke fumes and accompanied by ash ash up to 30 km. There was a bomb thrown about 500 m, 2 August to October
1928; There is a red gap at the bottom of the caldera that lava, March and November
1929; Between March and June, similar to what happened in 1928
1933; November 21-December 6
1936; 22-31 August, 18 September, November-11 December
1937; 27-31 October and 21-27 November
1938; 13 August-September and 14 November-28 December
1939; January 10th
1941; December 13th
1943; January 18th
1944; January 30-November 30. Possibility of lava flow in the caldera
1945; January 20 and April 19
1953; There was a smoke eruption on 31 January. Smoke burned with a bang until March 18. High eruption clouds reach ± 6 km above the peak and the distribution of ash reaches radius ± 200 km
1956; Eruption activity between February 13-19 and paroximal eruption occurred on 19 February. The height of the eruption smoke column is estimated to be ± 12 km. The sound of boom lasted about 4 hours sounded far to Surabaya and Malang. Ash rain spreads and falls to Bali and Surabaya.
1961; Increase in activity on 26 April
1973; It is rumored that the activity has increased since the end of 1972. Hadian (1973) visited the summit, but the situation is normal again. Almost the entire surface of the crater is covered by a lava flow coming out of a cone located at the center of the crater base. The entire surface of the cylinder cone is covered by sulfur, as well as in the northern part of the crater base. A bow-shaped face facing the middle is on the northeast. A fumarola bush is present at the top of the cylinder cone, on the above fracture, and in the western lava part
1989; Ash eruption
Elevation (meters above sea level);
3.332 m (10.932 ft)
Type of eruption;
Mount Raung activity center is currently located at the base of the caldera. In February 1902, at the base of the caldera emerged a central cone as high as ± 90 m.
The character of the eruption of Mount Raung is explosive as it happened in 1586, 1597, 1638, 1890, 1953, and 1956, producing ash thrown into the air and ever hot clouds that glide over the body of the mountain in 1953. The main hazard of Mount Raung eruption or primary hazards are the immediate hazards of eruptions such as hot clouds and pyroclastic flushing.
Eruption Period. Based on the history of its activities the shortest eruption period between 2 eruptions is 1 year and the longest 90 years.
Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Geologi (Link; drive.google.com)
Erupsi Raung Juli 2015 Sebagai Laboratorium Alam Fisika; KENDID MAHMUDI, Pascasarjana Program Studi Pengajaran Fisika Institut Teknologi Bandung; FIKROTURROFIAH SUWANDI PUTRI, Pascasarjana Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta; LILIK HENDRAJAYA, Fisika Institut Teknoogi Bandung; SEMINAR NASIONAL FISIKA DAN PEMBELAJARANNYA 2015 (Link; drive.google.com)
ANALISIS NON LINIER TREMOR VULKANIK GUNUNGAPI RAUNG JAWA TIMUR–INDONESIA; Arin Wildani, Program Pasca Sarjana Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Brawijaya; Sukir Maryanto, Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Brawijaya; Hendra Gunawan, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi; Hetty Triastuty, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi; Muhammad Hendrasto, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi; November 2013 (Link; drive.google.com)
Fisika Gunung Api : Mengapa Gunung Raung Meraung?; Kendid Mahmudi, Enjang J. Mustopa, dan Lilik Hendrajaya; Prosiding Simposium Nasional Inovasi dan Pembelajaran Sains 2015 (SNIPS 2015); 8 dan 9 Juni 2015, Bandung, Indonesia (Link; drive.google.com)