The Batur Caldera is a remnant of a huge volcano. Some of the body of the mountain collapsed due to the devastating eruption, forming a very large crater called the caldera. The caldera formation occurs twice. Not surprisingly, when this can be witnessed how vast expanse of this giant crater. In the next process, on the east-southeast side of the caldera floor is formed a semi-circular lake like a crescent moon known as Lake Batur …
1849; Eruption with lava flow to south direction to lake.
1888; There was a gap in the southeastern slope, the lava flowed into the southeastern direction to the lake.
1897; There was a lerupsi from the main crater
1904; Parasitic eruptions to the west, which is around Mount Anti and Mount Pandang, lavanya scattered around it.
1905; Eruption from Batur Crater I, Batur II and Batur III. Lavanya flows to the south, south and south direction.
1921; The eruption begins on January 29 and ends April 17, the lavas flowing south-west and southward.
1922; August 30 eruption from the main crater.
1923; Increased activity for 2 days.
1924; The ash eruption occurred in March.
1925; Early January an ash eruption followed by a lava incandescent for 1 day.
1926; The eruption begins August 2nd and ends on September 21st.
1963; Eruption began September 5 and ended May 10, 1964, the eruption accompanied leleran lava.
1965; On August 18 there was an ash eruption.
1966; On April 28 an ash eruption occurred.
1968; The eruption begins January 23 and ends February 15, lava awa to the south.
1970; The end of January there was a very thin ash eruption up to Kintamani.
1971; Starting March 11 was an ash eruption, the eruption lasted until May.
1974; The eruption occurred on 12 March, the lava lute occurred on March 17 to the west around Yehmampeh.
1994; Eruption started on date. August 7, 1994, explosive explosive activity that was at the beginning of the eruption of ash eruption (Photo 3), then subsequent eruptions accompanied by burst of incandescent material (Photo 4), mengahsilkan new crater (crater 1994).
1995; Eruption May 26, 1995, the center of the eruption of Crater 1994, its activities in the form of explosive eruptions accompanied throwing metrial incandescent. The nature of eruption is similar to the eruption activity of 1994.
1997; The eruption occurred on 8 November 1997, the eruption center of Batur Crater III. Eruption activity is the release of dried gases that are observed bluishly removed from Batur Crater III.
1998; The eruption began June 2, 1998, resulting in a new crater (Crater 1998), located between Batur III Crater and Crater 1994. The June 1998 eruptions are characterized by eruptions of observed bluish dry gas, as bursts / rays of fire
1999; Eruption began February 1, 1999, resulting in a new crater (Crater 1999), volcanic activity of this crater in the form of smoke eruption (Photo 6). On the date. March 15, 1999, the bund which separates the Crater 1998 with Crater 1999 collapsed, so the two craters become one.
2000; On the date. 7 July 2000, at 12:16 Wita, eruption erupted again 3 incidents, eruption center from Crater of 1999. High smoke eruption reaches maximum 300 m above crater lip, leaning toward northwest. Smoke eruption is gray-black. Eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flushing such as sand, lapilli and lumps, precipitate with radius lk. 100 m from eruption center.
Elevation (meters above sea level);
1.717 m (5.633 ft)
Type of eruption;
Junghun 1850, recorded the eruptions and lava flows of 1849 that flowed southward to Lake Batur. Some eruptions such as in 1888, 1904 and 1905. In 1926 the eruption of Mount Batur issued a lava leleran hoarding the village of Batur but did not cause casualties. The eruption of lava lava occurred again in 1963 and 1964 to the west, south and southwest.
n 1968 Mount Batur erupted in the form of volcanic material incandescent after preceded by lava leleran. In 1969 reported sulfur smell on the surface of Lake Batur, the color of the water changed from green to white. This incident lasted for two days. Unlike previous eruptions in May 1971, an eruption of ash spreads in the caldera and thin ash rain in Kintamani, followed by the 1974 eruption of an eruption that drew a lava jumble to the west, around Yehmampeh.
The eruption period 1994 – 1995 is dominated by strombolian eruption, then the period 1997 – 1999 eruptions are predominant gas / smoke eruption, while the eruption of 7 July 2000 in the form of strombolian eruption.
Topology & Geology;
the history of the formation of Mount Batur and its caldera begins with the growth of an ancient volcano cone with a height of lk. 300 m above sea level. About 29,300 years ago there was a hot cloud eruption containing dasitic composite rocks, after the eruption there was amblasan on the top of the cone forming Caldera Batur I, with Mount Threshold (+2152 m) is the rest of the ancient conical body.
The second major eruption occurred about 20,150 years ago with the same composition as the first, this eruption followed by the formation of several cones and domes such as Mount Payang dang and Gunung Bunbulan. The second alteration occurred and formed Batur II Caldera with Mount Payang and Mount Bunbulan cones collapsed almost half.
Ancient activity of the caldera is characterized by the growth of Mount Batur cone until now formed. This activity was initiated about 5000 years ago by the formation of the cone of Mount Batur composed basal to andesit basalan.
Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Geologi (Link; drive.google.com)
POTENSI PANAS BUMI INDONESIA JILID 1, halaman 703; Direktorat Panas Bumi, Ditjen EBTKE, Pusat Sumber Daya Mineral, Batubara, dan Panas Bumi, Badan Geologi 2017 (Link; drive.google.com)
Kaldera Batur, Taman Bumi Pertama Dari Indonesia; GEOMAGAZINE VOL. 2 NO. 4, DESEMBER 2012 (Link; drive.google.com)
KARAKTERISTIK LAHAN KRITIS BEKAS LETUSAN GUNUNG BATUR DI
KABUPATEN BANGLI, BALI (Critical Land Characteristics of Former Eruption of Batur Mount in Bangli District, Bali); Ryke Nandini, Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Mataram; dan/and Budi Hadi Narendra, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi;Diterima: 23 Agustus 2010; Disetujui: 08 September 2011 (Link; drive.google.com)