||In terms of its spread, the vegetation in Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park is included in the western vegetation zone of Indonesia with the dominant tree species of the Diterocarpaceae.
Based on different stand structure, species composition and physiognomy, Bukit Tigapuluh National Park ecosystem consists of 4 kinds, namely:
- Primary natural forests: unspoiled tropical rainforests have not been disturbed by logging activities. The dominant species in these sub-ecosystems are commonly derived and the Dipterocarpaceae, which are meranti species (such as Shorea abovoida and S. accummata)
- The forest is disturbed: natural forest areas that have been logged. In this sub-ecosystem is dominated by the types derived from the Euphorbiaceae, among others, Elastriopermum tapos and Baccaurea racemosa.
- Forests of forest (secondary forest): areas that have been opened for cultivation and then abandoned and used as fields again in the next period. The dominant species in these sub-ecosystems are generally pioneer types, such as Macaranga gigantea and M. triloba.
- Rubber plantation: the area used by the community for gardening with the main species of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).
However, based on research and botanical exploration that has been done has been identified 176 species of plants and found several species unique and allegedly rare among them: rectangular fungus (Rafflesia hasseltii), salo (Johannesteijsmannia altifrons), mapau (Pinanga multiflora), mapau kalui (Iguanura walliziana, jelutung (Dyera costulata), jernang (Daemonorops draco), meranti (Shorea peltata), gaharu wood (Aquilaria malacensis,) rattan (Calamus ciliaris and Calamus exilis), ramin (gonistylus bancanus), incense (Styrax benzoin), pegs earth (Eurycoma longifolia), areca nut (Nenga sp.), squirrel daggers (Archidendron bubalinum), roots (Phanera kochiana), jungle (Baccaurea racemosa), and silima years (Baccaurea stipulata).
The rimau fungus is a distinctive plant and endemic to Bukit Tigapuluh National Park. Other types of flora include red sap (Palaquium spp), pulai (Alstonia scolaris), kempas (Koompassia excelsa), tassel (Shorea spp), medang (Litsea sp, Dehaasia sp), bark (Parashorea sp.), Bayur (Pterospermum javanicum), brown wood (Eugenia sp), and cassia (Pometia pinnata).
Some of the existing plant resources in and around Bukit Tigapuluh National Park have been utilized by local communities for treatment needs. Malays use 182 species of plants to treat 45 kinds of diseases, and 8 types of fungi (mushrooms) for 8 kinds of diseases.
Talang Mamak tribe utilizes 110 types of medicinal plants to treat 56 kinds of diseases and 22 types of fungi to treat 18 kinds of diseases. Of the abundant natural wealth, there are 51 medicinal plants, 8 medicinal fungi and 2 medicinal animals that have excellent prospects for research and development. Types of plants commonly used for medicines indigenous to national parks, among others, turmeric root ( Dilenia sp.), Root of breakthrough (Rourea sp), wood manau (Canarium litorale), incense (Stryrax benzoin), chili tempala (Piper canium), white lase, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia), kulim (Scorodocarpus borneensis) Sterculia oblongata), and palm rod content (Arenga sp.).
Besides as a plant resource drug is also used to meet the needs of daily living, recorded 486 species of forest plants that have been utilized and 158 species of forest plants have been cultivated. The plant that has been utilized consists of 27 species as ornamental plants, 16 species as cooking spices, 10 types as carbohydrate source, 5 species as latex and resin producers, 26 types for ritual and magical purposes, 18 species as wood board source, 21 types as the source of the ropes, and 3 types as the source of the dye.
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