Mt. Semeru

PROFILE;


Maps;  Google Map  Link
(*only for information);
Name:
Mt. Semeru
Note:
Mount Semeru is the highest mountain in Java Island, with its peak Mahameru, Crater at the peak of Mount Semeru known as Jonggring Saloko.
In 1913 and 1946 Jonggring Saloka crater has a dome with an altitude of 3744.8 m until the end of November 1973. To the south, the dome is breaking down the crater rim causing lava flows leading to the southern side covering Pronojiwo and Candipuro areas in Lumajang…
Conservation:
Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park;

GOVERMENT ADMINISTRATION


Province East Java
City / Regency
  1. Kabupaten Lumajang
  2. Kabupaten Malang
Distrik 1.1 Kecamatan Pasrujambe; 1.2 Kecamatan Pronojiwo;

2.1 Kecamatan Poncokusumo; 2.2 Kecamatan  Ampelgading

Village 1.1.1 Desa Tawonsongo; 1.1.2 Desa Sumberingin; 1.1.3 Desa Ngampo;

1.2.1 Desa Sumberurip; 1.2.2 Desa Supiturang;

2.1.1 Desa Ngadas;

2.2.1 Desa Tamansari;

PHISICAL CONDITION


Shape;
Stratovulcano
Condition;
a vulcano /active
History of eruption;
1818; November 8th
1829; February
1830; December 15-16
1832; April 18th, Lava?
1836; August 3-5
1838; July, August
1842; January-March
1844 – 1845; September 1844-July 1845
1848; February 4th
1851; January
1856; September 10th
1857; August 13 to September
1860; April-June
1864; July, Lava?
1867; April May
1872; October 23rd
1877; April? , September
1878; ?
1884; December 11th
1885; January, April, July, September. Lava linings.
1886; January, April, July, August
1887; February-March. Lava liner 10 September to 10 October
1888; February, March, May, October
1889; Lava liners, January-March, June, October, December
1890; January-December
1891; February-May. Lava linings
1892; March April
1893; January-May, September
1894; February
1895; May 22-July 10, October 1 leleran lava, lava. Garapan Land is broken
1896; May-June
! 897; January. Lava linings
1898; February. Lava linings
1899; January, March August, December
1900; March 29-April 11. Lava linings
1901; January 29-30
1903; March 26-June
1904; January 2-16
1905; August 4th
1907; January 7th – 10th
1908; January-December
1909; September-December. Hot clouds. Ground is broken.
1910; January-December
1911; January, February? Lava linings? Hot clouds. Ground is broken. November-December
1912; August 28th
1913; June 23rd
1941-1942; Eruption in radial slit. Lava linings. September 21, 1941-February 1942. The eruption reached the eastern slope at an altitude between 1400 and 1775m. The point of eruption of 6 places. Lava linings go to B. Ants and hoarding Watering Post Bantengan. Lava flow along the 6.5km.
1945; 12-18 June
1946; Hot clouds. Ground is broken. February-May, October-December. The formation of the dome (Adnawidjaja, 1947)
1947; March-June
1950; July, November 23-December, lava flows to Besuk Sat and lava pouring into Entuk Semut
1951; November. The flow of lava into the ants Besuk
1952; The flow of lava into Totogan Malang and lava flow to Besuk Kobokan to Curah Lengkong
1953; Volcanic eruptions are on the rise
1954; November, lava flows through Besuk Kobokan
1955-1957; Activities continued, 22 February and 4 May 1957 lava flows
1958; 27 April lava flows occur 1 km through Kali Glidik, there is also the formation of a lava dome
1959; May
1960; April, May, August
1961; Stromboli type eruption with ash lk 3000m above the peak (Sumopranoto, 1961, in Kusumadinata, 1979). Eruption material was thrown up Recopodo, forest around Upuk Sat and Besuk Tompe passed. Lava flow occurs in Kali Glidik, Besuk Sat, Besuk Bang and Besuk Kobokan.
1963; May 5 start at 14:10 occurred hot clouds and lava flows hit Curah Lengkong, Kali Fishing and Besuk Ants, hot clouds reach 8 km from the crater. The eruption lasted until the end of July.
1967; The eruption took place in September and the formation of a lava dome erupted in 1963 at the southern crater (upstream Kali Glidik, Besuk Bang and Besuk Kobokan) reached 3730m (54m above Mahameru peak). Lahar takes place in the valley times Glidik, Besuk Kobokan and Kali Rejali.
1968; The growth of the lava dome continues. The lava flood took 3 people from Sumber Wungkil village.
1969; The growth of the lava dome continues.
1972; The growth of the lava dome is still ongoing reaching a height of 3744.5m above sea level. Thunderstorms occasionally occur through Kali Glidik to the forest boundary. At the end of the year, eruptions occur every 5 to 45 minutes with a maximum smoke height of 500m above the crater lip, sand and dust ejected for 1km.
1973; The formation of the lava dome is still ongoing during August. Eruptions of 1000 l reach are common with lava flows. Increased lava droplets rise and slide to Besuk Sat and Besuk Kobokan reaches 2km distance from the peak, burning the forest.
1974; Activities continue, the lava dome is higher.
1975-1976; Eruption in the main crater with lava flow.
1977; December 1st lava eruption resulted in 10km hot clouds spewed in Besuk Kembar with sediment volume of 6.4 million m3. Some of these hot clouds deviated into Besuk Kobokan. Rice fields and tegal area of ​​110ha damaged in Sumberurip Village, pine forest 450ha and 1 bridge damaged and 2 booths drifted home.
1978; The eruption still occurs with a maximum smoke height reaching 800m above the crater rim. Thunderstorms occur in the Twin Besuk 3 times in March and 15 times in May with a maximum sliding distance of 7km.1979; The eruption is still happening, scattered with hot clouds sliding into Besuk Kembar reaching maximum distance 3km.
1980; The eruption lasted a full year, there was falling interspersed with hot clouds to Besuk Kobokan and Twin Besuk.
1981; Small eruptions, lava flowing through the edge of the crater into the Twin Besuk and form the tongue of lava. On March 28, there was a lava tongue splash in Besuk Kembar followed by a falling hot cloud which deviated at an altitude of 1400m above sea level and entered into Bang Besuk reaching a maximum distance of 10km from the crater rim, the pile of sediment 6.2 million m3. The temperature of hot spring or sediment cloud near the Supit Dukuh Tengah 120 ° C. On March 29th and between April 3rd and 4th there were several occasional hot clouds with a maximum slide range of 7km.
1982; In May there was an increase in the number of eruptions, all falling into twin beams, sometimes accompanied by an avalanche of hot clouds reaching a maximum distance of 3.5km from the crater.
1983; The eruption lasts throughout the year, falling and hot clouds reach 3km glide distance in Besuk Kembar.
1984; January 16, there was an old lava dome clash accompanied by hot clouds falling into Besuk Kobokan reaching sliding distance 2-4km.
1985; The eruption occurred in May with hot clouds of falling.
1986 – 1989; The eruption continues, followed by a cloud of hot fall with a maximum smoke height of 1.2 km above the crater rim, side by side with the formation of a lava dome.
1990; November – December lava lava droplets produce hot clouds and Jonggring Seloko crater is open until now.
1992; Stromboli eruption with the formation of lava dome and lava tongue along the 1.5km from the crater in November – December.
1994; February 2 to February 15. February 2 happened 9 times the eruption of thick white smoke with a height of 500m and 34 times lava lava to Besuk Kembar reach lk 1000m, accompanied by increased tremor earthquake for 7 days before February 3, 1994. February 3 at 03.50 happened eruption and sound boom accompanied by ash and rain lava lava formed a cloud of heat fall from the lava dome and lava tongue that formed since 1992. The flow of hot clouds this fall into Besuk Kobokan reach 11.5km, to Besuk Kembar 7,5km and to Besuk Bang lk 3.5km. The volume of hot clouds is estimated to reach 6.8 million m3. The victim who died was as hot as 7 people and 2 people were washed away by lahar on February 13, 1994. The next activity gradually decreased back to normal with the flow of hot clouds reaching distance of 200-750m from the peak.
2002;

  • March 11, 2002 G.api Semeru status raised from normal ?? became alert, due to an increase in the number of shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes since January 2002 and peaked in April 2002, 10 and 57 times respectively. There was an increase in the first harmonic quake tremor in March 2002 up to June 2002.
  • The lava incision also increased sharply from April 2002 (610 times) to August 2002 (484 times), but from September to December 2002 showed a decline (93- 151 times) back. The decline of the lava incidence was replaced by the emergence of a significant influx of hot clouds in December 2002, which followed the re-emergence of the second series of harmonic tremor earthquakes since August 2002. These harmonic tremor earthquakes peaked in December 2002, and up to the 3 rd January 2003 there have been several times a harmonic tremor earthquake with maximum amplitude reaching 4 mm.
  • December 23, 2002 occurred 8 times the eruption in the main crater.
  • December 25, 2002 happened 1 time eruption.
  • 26 and 27 December 2002 also happened eruptions in the main crater respectively 7 and 8 times, followed by incandescent lava flows entering the Upuk twin side up 250 meters on December 27, 2002.
  • December 29, 2002 eruption occurred in the main crater as much as 7 times.
  • The decline of the lava incidence was replaced by the emergence of a significant influx of hot clouds in December 2002, which followed the re-emergence of the second series of harmonic tremor earthquakes since August 2002. These harmonic tremor earthquakes peaked in December 2002, and up to the 3 rd January 2003 there have been several times a harmonic tremor earthquake with maximum amplitude reaching 4 mm.
    December 23, 2002 occurred 8 times the eruption in the main crater.
    December 25, 2002 happened 1 time eruption.
    26 and 27 December 2002 also happened eruptions in the main crater respectively 7 and 8 times, followed by incandescent lava flows entering the Upuk twin side up 250 meters on December 27, 2002.
    December 29, 2002 eruption occurred in the main crater as much as 7 times.
    November 30, 2002 hot clouds fall 5000 meters into the Upuk Bang. The following hot clouds occurred on December 13, entering the upstream section of Besuk Bang with a sliding distance of 5000 meters. On December 16, 2002 the hot clouds rejected into the Upuk twin as far as 4000 meters. The next hot cloud occurred on 25 December 2002 entering the Upuk Kobokan upstream of 5000 meters. On December 28, two hot clouds of rainfall (17:26 and 17:30) entered Upuk Kobokan’s Upuk, 4000 meters in length.
  • At 19:00 on December 29, 2002 a series of hot cloud streams falling into Besuk Bang as far as 9000m approaching Supit Timur village on the west side of Besuk Bang, and Rawabaung hamlet on east side of Besuk Bang, each at 750m altitude. Dusun Supit Timur is located on a ridge wedged in a meeting between the river Besuk Bang and Besuk Supit.
  • The next hot cloud stream occurred on December 30, 2002 at 7:20 pm entering Besuk Bang as far back as 2000m, and back at 10:00 am the hot clouds entering Besuk Bang as far as 2000 meters.
  • On December 29, 2002 from 17:00 to 21:00, the seismograph at G.api Semeru Observation Post in G. Sawur, also noted the existence of a flood earthquake that is expected to enter Besuk Bang, and Besuk Kembangan.
  • So far there has been no casualties or damage to houses or public facilities either in the hamlet of Supit Timur or in Rawabaung hamlet. On the morning of December 30, 2002, Dusun Supit Timur has been emptied by some of its inhabitants, especially children and elderly parents. The other young men and boys remain on guard at night for the overall safety of the village.

2004; January 20, 2004 occurred A cloud of heat falling into Besuk Bang as far as 2500m later on 7 October again a hot cloud with a sliding distance of 1000 m to Besuk Bang. Hot clouds occur with more frequencies in November and December with a sliding distance of 1000-3000m towards Besuk Bang.
2005; December 29, 2005 occurred A cloud of hot fall into Besuk Bang as far as 1000, 1500 and 2500m respectively.
2007; November 15, 2007 there was a cloud of hot fall into Entrance Bang as far as 1000m.
2008;

  • May 15, 2008 there was a cloud of hot clouds that was preceded by a smoke eruption with a height of + 600m. Direction of hot clouds to Besuk Bang with 2500m glide distance.
  • May 17, 2008 there was a cloud of hot clouds that was preceded by a smoke eruption with a height of + 500m. Direction of hot clouds to Besuk Bang with a sliding distance of 2000m.
  • May 18, 2008 happened 3x the fall of hot cloud which was preceded by smoke eruption with height of 500-600m. Direction of hot clouds to Besuk Bang with sliding distance of 500, 1500, and 2500m.
  • May 19, 2008 there was a cloud of hot clouds preceded by a smoke eruption. Direction of hot clouds to Besuk Bang with 1500m slides.
  • May 21, 2008 happened 6x hot clouds. Direction of hot clouds to Besuk Bang, Twin Besuk and Besuk Kobokan with 1000_ € 3000 m slides.
  • May 22, 2008 happened 4x hot clouds. Direction of hot clouds to Besuk Kobokan with 2500m glide distance.
Elevation (meters above sea level);
3.676 m (12.060 ft)
Type of eruption;
Mount Semeru activity is located in Jonggring Seloko crater located southeast of Mahameru peak. Mount Semeru eruption is generally volcanic ash eruption and strombolian that occurs 3-4 times every hour. Volcanic eruptions are characterized by explosive eruptions that occasionally destroy dome and preformed lava tongues. Furthermore, strombolian-type eruption is usually followed by the formation of the dome and a new lava tongue. At the time of explosive eruption is usually followed by the flow of hot clouds flowing into the lower valleys and flow direction in accordance with the opening craters and valleys in Mount Semeru. The direction of the crater of MountSemeru currently leads to the southeast or leads upstream Besuk Kembar, Besuk Bang, Besuk Kobokan.
Topology & Geology;
Temperature;
Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…

SOURCE


website
  1. vsi.esdm.go.id; May 2018
  2. geomagz.geologi.esdm.go.id; May 2018
  3. id.wikipedia.org; May 2018;
  4. sains.kompas.com; May 2018
  5. phinemo.com; May 2018
  6. …?
Blog
  1. …?;
PDF
  1. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Geologi; (Link; drive.google.com)

  2. Penentuan Tinggi Orthometrik Gunung Semeru Berdasarkan Data Survei GPS dan Model Geoid EGM 1996; Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, Departemen Teknik Geodesi, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB); Heri Andreas, Departemen Teknik Geodesi, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB); Dinar Maulana, Departemen Teknik Geodesi, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB); M. Hendrasto, Direktorat Vulkanologi and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (DVMBG) ; M. Gamal, Departemen Teknik Geodesi, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB);& Oni K. Suganda, Direktorat Vulkanologi and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (DVMBG); (Link; drive.google.com)

  3. Aliran lava produk letusan celah Tahun 1941 serta kemungkinan terjadinya letusan samping baru di Gunung Semeru Jawa Timur; Deden Wahyudin, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, Badan Geologi; Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi, Vol. 1 No.3 Desember 2010: 199 – 211 (Link; drive.google.com)

  4. Penentuan Struktur Internal Gunungapi Semeru Berdasarkan Citra Atenuasi Seismik; Hena Dian Ayu, Program Studi Magister Fisika, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang; Adi Susilo, Jurusan Fisika, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang; Sukir Maryanto, Jurusan Fisika, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang; Muhamad Hendrasto, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, Bandung; NATURAL B, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oktober 2013(Link; drive.google.com)
  5. …?
 

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *