Mt. Papandayan

PROFILE:

Maps;  Google Map  Link
(*only for information);
Name:
Mt. Papandayan;
Note:
Mount Papandayan has several craters, among them ‘Mas Crater’, ‘Baru Crater’, ‘Nangklak Crater’, and ‘Manuk crater’. The craters remove the steam from the inside…
Conservation:
Papandayan Nature Tourist Park; Papandayan Nature Reserve

GOVERMENT ADMINISTRATION

Province West Java
City / Regency
  1. Kabupaten Garut
  2. Kabupaten Bandung
Distrik 1.1 Kecamatan Cisurupan; 1.2 Kecamatan Cikajang; 1.3 Kecamatan Pamulihan; 1.4 Kecamatan Sukaresmi

2.1 Kecamatan Kertasari;

Village 1.1.1 Desa Karamat Wangi; 1.1.2 Desa Situsari; 1.1.3 Desa Pamulihan; 1.1.4 Desa Cipaganti; 1.1.5 Desa Sirnajaya; 1.1.6  Desa Cisero; 1.1.7 Desa Sukatani; 1.1.8 Desa Sukawargi;

1.2.1 Desa Cidatar; 1.2.2 Desa Margamulya 1.2.3 Desa Cikandang;

1.3.1 Desa Pakenjeng; 1.3.2 Desa Panawa; 1.3.3 Desa Pananjung;

1.4.1 Desa Mekarjaya

2.1.1 Desa Neglawangi; 2.1.2 Desa Tarumajaya; 2.1.3 Desa Cikembang;

PHISICAL CONDITION 

Shape;
Stratovulcano
Condition;
a vulcano / active
History of eruption;
  • 1772-On the night of 11th – 12th August there was a major eruption of the central crater and the hot clouds had killed about 2951 people and destroyed about 40 villages.
  • 1882- On May 28 afternoon on a clear day and a bright sky at the Campaka Warna there was a roar in the ground suspected to be from the Papandayan volcano.
  • 1923- On 11 March an eruption erupted mud and stones thrown up to 150 meters away. There are 7 pieces erupsidalam New crater and letusa is preceded by an earthquake that feels in Cisurupan.
  • 1924- On January 25, Mas crater rises from 364 ‘C to 500’ C then there is a mud eruption in Mas crater and New crater. On December 16 thunder heard the sound of thunder and explosion from the New crater, the surrounding forests became bare due to the fall of rocks and mud, eruption material ejected to the east almost reached Cisurupan.
  • 1925- On 21 February there was a mud eruption in the Nangklak crater followed by a powerful gas explosion with mud rain.
  • 1926- In the crater of Mas eruption of small mud mixed with sulfur. In the New crater there was a strong blow that flung the sulfur flour up to 300 meters to the northeast and the southwest direction reached 100 meters and ended with a sulfur mud eruption.
  • 1927- On February 16th – 18th there was an increase of activity in Mas crater and until now still occurring smoke of fumarola and solfatar and hot mud bubble.
  • 1942- On 15 – 16 August born a new eruption hole.
  • 1993- On July 17 there was a mud explosion in the New crater.
  • 1998- In June there was significant volcanic activity, with the increasing number of seismic seismic, as well as the occurrence of mud and gas bursts at the crater fumarole hole, at Mas crater, which reached a height of about five meters.
  • 2002- Beginning on November 11, an increase in volcanic activity in Papandayan volcano, a major eruption occurred in Papandayan volcano from November 13 to 20, activities decreased until December 21, due to this eruption of avalanches on the crater wall of Nangklak and flood along the river Cibeureum gede up to the river Cimanuk 7 km, soaking some housing units and causing large erosion along the flow.
Elevation (meters above sea level);
2.249 m (7.378 ft)
Type of eruption;
The eruption of Mount Papandayan throughout the history of human life to date is a phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruption as it did in 2002.

Mount Papandayan including volcano type A volcano erupted after 1600, an eruption that occurred in Papandayan volcano recorded in 1772 which claimed the lives of about two thousand souls and eliminate many villages around the area of Mount Papandayan. Activities that occurred in 1772 is a large eruption activity where some of the top of the mountain thrown and hit an area of approximately 250 km, the activity begins with the spewing of a very large fire, and this eruption occurs in the central crater. Hot clouds glide toward the northeast and most of the eruption material is flowed by the Ciparugpug and Cibeureum rivers downstream.

Topology & Geology;
Morphological division of Mount Papandayan, characterized by sharp walls and narrow valleys, strong erosion, dense vegetation.
The morphology of the body (including the Brungbrung crater, the Manuk Crater, the Nangklah Crater, the New Crater and the Ruslan Valley), is formed by lava flows and pyroclastic flow deposits, radiary flow pattern, foot morphology, characterized by subtle morphology in the northeast and south sectors; berelief is in the south sector, formed by the flow of lava and pyroclastic flow deposits, dendrtitik flow pattern, and Tapalkuda morphology, is a north-eastward depression ranging from Kawah Mas to Cibalong and Cibodas as a result of debris avalanche deposit.

The lava flows of the Papandayan Mountain product can be divided into two main groups: lava flows composed of basalt augit hipersten (pilotaxite-based texture, consisting of An56An44 andesin to labradorite An46An54, augit, hypersten, olivine, magnetite in the glasses of the volcano) and andesite lava flows hipersten augit.
Andesite hypersten augit vitrofiric lava, composed of vitrofiric textured lavas, consisting of hypersten, augite, andesin An66An34, and magnetite in the glassware masadasar; partially altered (chloritization, limonitasation and serisitization). In some places there are foreign rocks (quartzite and claystone containing ores) confined in the hypersten augit andesite lava.
Andesite hypersten augit kriptokristalin lava, composed by hypersten, augit, andesin An66An34, magnetite, and pigeonite in the main glasses of volcano. Some of the lava found around the Walirang Crater is beyond recognition, red brick, gray whitish – tends to turn into clay and kaolin. 9) In the crater area, the effect of the solfatar blow to the lava flow produces clay deposits and kaolin mixed with sulfur mud, often accompanied by firit, gypsum sheets, limonite and jarosite.

Temperature;
Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…

Flora

Endemik
Identification Potential flora in this mountain area include Suagi Tree (Vaccinium valium), Edelweis (Anaphalis javanica), Puspa (Schima walichii), Saninten (Castanea argentea), Plate (Quercus platycorpa), Kihujan (Engelhardia spicata), Jamuju (Podocarpus imbricatus ), and Manglid (Magnolia sp)…
more search required …?
Overview of flora in West Java
Tree ===> click here
Non Tree ===> click here
Coral ===> click here

Fauna

Endemik
Identification Mammals: Pig Forest (Sus vitatus), Pangolin (Sweet javanicus), Kijang (Muntiacus muntjak),
Primates: Lutung (Trachypitecus auratus)
Birds: several species of birds, among others, Walik (Treron griccipilla), and Kutilang (Pycononotus aurigaste)

more search required …?

Overview of fauna in West Java
Amfibian ===> click here
Bird ===> click here
Fish ===> click here
Insect ===> click here
Mammalia ===> click here
Primata ===> click here
Reptil ===> click here
Invertebrata ===> click here

Source

website
  1. vsi.esdm.go.id; April 2018;
  2. id.wikipedia.org; April 2018;
  3. digarut.com; April 2018;
  4. …?
Blog
  1. …?;
PDF
  1. vsi.esdm.go.id(Link; drive.google.com)
  2. Determinasi sumber tekanan dan analisis regangan utama di Gunung Api Papandayan untuk mengetahui korelasi dengan kegempaan; Ony Kurnia Suganda, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi; Dina Anggreni Sarsito, Program Studi Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika, Institut Teknologi Bandung; Hasanuddin Zaenal Abidin, Program Studi Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika, Institut Teknologi Bandung; dan Aris Kusnandar, Program Studi Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika, Institut Teknologi Bandung; Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 2 No. 2 Juni 2007: 73-86(Link; drive.google.com)
  3. Stratigrafi gunung api daerah Bandung Selatan, Jawa Barat; SUTIKNO BRONTO, ACHNAN KOSWARA, dan KASPAR LUMBANBATU, Pusat Survei Geologi; Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 1 No. 2 Juni 2006: 89-101 (Link; drive.google.com
  4. …?

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