Mt. Lokon

PROFILE


Maps;  Google Map  Link
(*only for information);
Name:
Mt. Lokon(crater name is Tompaluan);
Note:
Mount Lokon, in Tomohon City, North Sulawesi, is believed to be a big and common mountain in the area. Mount Lokon is also called the Old Lokon or ‘Tou Tua Lokon’ which means old parent.
Mount Lokon adjacent to Empung mountain, deno society around seing as twin mountain…
Conservation:
Mt Lokon Nature Reserve;…

GOVERMENT ADMINISTRATION


Province North Sulawesi
City / Regency
  1. Kabupaten Minahasa
  2. Kota Tomohon
Distrik 1.1 Kecamatan Pineleng; 1.2 Kecamatan Tombabiri

2.1 Kecamatan Tomohon Utara;

Village 1.1.1 Desa Agotey;

1.2.1 Desa Lemoh Timur;

2.1.1 Desa Kinilow Satu; 2.1.2 Desa Tinoor Satu; 2.1.3 Desa Kakaskasen Tiga; 2.1.4 Desa Kayawu; 2.1.5 Desa Taratara Dua;

PHISICAL CONDITION


Shape;
Stratovolcano
Condition;
a vulcano / active
History of eruption;
1829; March, explosive steam occurred in the saddle (Graafland, 1901).
1893; March 29, According to the Sarasin brothers (1901), two boccaï “stones” have been worked out as well as snail bombs for months.
1930; August, (Steup, 1931).
1942; 3 September, eruption of ash, (Djatikoesoemo, 1952).
1949; According to Sudrajat (1952) there was an increase in the level of activity on September 14 with a small eruption, but the actual eruption began on 2 July 1951 to last continuously until the end of 1951.
1952; Eruption activity as a continuation of in 1951. A rather large eruption occurred on 27 and 28 May. New activity declined and stopped in November.
1953; Activity is still going on.
1958; The eruption activity began on 19 February with a small eruption spewing lapili around the crater. Then the eruption occurred on 4, 16 – 17 March, 3 – 4 May. The activities take place throughout the year.
1959; The eruption since February 1958, resumed in 1959, continues until the end of December 23. During this year there was an eruption of ash interspersed with powerful eruptions throwing stones. Ash rain descended around it. In August, September and November there is no eruption.
1961; On May 19, After the break of lk. 2 years, again eruption of ash. Activities continue throughout the year. Big strong ash eruption occurs 2 times ie on 24 October and 20 November.
1962; No further details.
1965-1966; Increase in activity.
1969; The eruptival phase begins at pk. 00.10 on November 27th. The next day explosive pk. 21.57 causes an ash eruption as high as 400 m. Rain of sand of war. Activity increases by the end of the year. Siswowidjoyo (1970) said that the hot clouds glide along the valley Pasahapen lk. 2km away towards Kinilow.
1970; From April to December eruption erupts.
1973; September, increased activity.
1974; January 28, Eruption of ash.
1975; The formation of a lava dome.
1976; January 2, there was an eruption, the lava plug was destroyed.
1977; March 8, 5, 6, 27 April, 8, 13, 15, May 17, 8, 13 – 15 September, there was an eruption, a ray of fire.
1982; Increased activity, the smoke gets thicker.
1983; Blowing smoke.
1986; Phreatic eruption, lava to S. Pasahapen. Occurs erupted, March 24, 5, 7, 12, April 27, May 18, June, July 14 as high as 3000 m. August eruption of ash small. September 4 with a high eruption of 1500 m.
1987; January 6, 11, March 21, 10, May 13, Eruption of ash
1988; April 21, 17, 18, July 21, Eruption of ash
1989; August 21, September 5, there was an eruption.
1990; April 21, May 5, there was an eruption.
1991; 12 July, 6, 28 March, 10 – 11, 17, 26 – 28 May, 1 – 30 June, 4 – 7. 9. July 11, 19 September 19, October 24 eruption eruption and lava dome growth. 25 October, hot clouds into S. Pasahapen as far as 1000 m, smoke height 2000 m. 26 – 31 October, 1, 6, 12, 17, 20, 24 November, 1 December, there was an eruption.
1993; April, activities increased in the form of tremor earthquake. June – September, increased activity in the form of volcanic earthquake swarm.
1997; December 12, there was a phreatic eruption at the bottom of the crater, forming a hole with a diameter lk. 5m.
2000; July 7, formed a new hole in the bottom of the crater. Hole diameter lk. 7 m, shaped like a well radiating red light.
2001; January 28 at 19:20 pm, there was an eruption accompanied by a burst of incandescent material (volcanic bomb) that crashed around the Tompaluan Crater. March 26, at 14:40 WITA the eruption of ash. This eruption is accompanied by a roar / thump. Color of thick black smoke with high smoke lk. 1000 meters above the crater lip, then blown to the east and north. In this eruption is not accompanied by burst of incandescent material.
2002; December 23, at 5:32 am there was an eruption of ash. Smoke of gray eruption reaches 800 m above the crater lip.
2003; February – April, there are 30 times the eruption, 9 times with ash with an altitude of more than 1000 m is gray-black. The biggest eruption occurred on February 23, the ash eruption height reached 2500 m. The eruption ended April 1st.
2007; At the end of December there was an increase in activity
Elevation (meters above sea level);
1.580 m (5.184 ft)
Type of eruption;
Based on the historical record of eruption, in general the eruption of Mount Lokon in the form of eruption of ash accompanied by incandescent rocks, occasionally issued lava incandescent and hot clouds. The eruption lasts several days.
In the event of a major eruption, the main danger of Mount Lokon eruption or primary hazard (direct danger from eruption) is the hot clouds, pyroclastic flows (volcanic bombs, lapilli, sand and ash) and possibly lava flows. The secondary hazard (the indirect danger of eruption) is the rain lava that occurs after the eruption when it rains heavily around the peak.
The symptoms of Mount Lokon before the eruption generally in the form of thickened cauldron smoke, the height fluctuates between 400 – 600 m above the crater lip. The longer the smoke becomes thicker and someday it will change color to gray, indicating that the ash-sized material has been carried out.…
Topology & Geology;
Geomorphology of the Lokon-Empung complex is divided into 4 units, namely Cave Geomorphology Unit, Crater, Low & Corrugated Ridge and Ground Geomorphology.
Geomorphology units of cones occupy the area around the body of Mount Lokon and Mount Empung. Mount Lokon has a flat top without a crater with a slope between 30′-70 ‘. While the Empung Mountain has two cone-shaped cones, the Empung Muda in the west and the Empung Tua in the east, each of which has a crater at its peak. The flow pattern of the river is a radiator with a valley shaped “V”, with a relatively steep cliff. Vegetation of the cover is a fairly thick reed.
Geomorphology unit of the crater is in the crater of Tompaluan and Kawah Empung. The Tompaluan crater is the most active crater currently formed around 1828, while the Empung Crater is no longer active.
Geomorphological units The Low & Wavy Hills occupy most of the Lokon – Empung complexes, a morphology that forms a sloping and bumpy ridge, a slope angle of <300. Its forming rock is pyroclastic and lava. Most of this area is used as agricultural land.
Geomorphological units The plains occupy along the northern coast, around the Malalyang and Kakaskasen plains at an elevation of approximately 800 m. Commonly used as a rice field and coconut plantations.…
Temperature;
Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…

SOURCE


website
  1. vsi.esdm.go.id; July 2018
  2. bbc.com; july 2018
  3. id.wikipedia.org; July 2018
  4. pedomanwisata.com; July 2018
  5. …?
Blog
  1. …?;
PDF
  1. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Geologi (Link; drive.google.com)
  2. Studi terpadu seismik dan deformasi di Gunung Lokon, Sulawesi Utara; Nia Haerani, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi – Badan Geologi; Hendra Gunawan, Sekretariat Badan Geologi; Kristianto, Sekretariat Badan Geologi; Kushendratno, Sekretariat Badan Geologi; S.R. Wittiri, Sekretariat Badan Geologi; Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi, Vol. 1 No. 3 Desember 2010: 151 – 164(Link; drive.google.com)
  3. VARIASI ZONA LEMAH STRUKTUR INTERNAL GUNUNG LOKON BERDASARKAN STUDI SEISMO-VULKANIK; Silvester Anthe, Guntur Pasau, Adey Tanauma- Program Studi Fisika, FMIPA, UNSRAT; (Link; drive.google.com)
  4. ANALISIS KARAKTERISTIK DAN KLASIFIKASI GEMPA PADA GUNUNG LOKON BERDASARKAN REKAMAN DATA SEISMOGRAM APRIL – MEI 2012; Leovina Prinanda Putri, Prof.Drs.Suharno, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D , Bagus Sapto Mulyatno, S.Si, M.T-Jurusan Teknik Geofisika Fakultas Teknik Universitas Lampung; Kristiato, PVMBG;… (Link; drive.google.com)
 

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