Mt. Karangetang

PROFILE


Maps;  Google Map  Link
(*only for information);
Name:
Mt. Karangetang; Mt. Siau;
Note:
Karangetang Volcano is a conical shape with average slope about 25, and has two peaks, i.e. South Peak (1827 m) and North Peak (1784 m). Crater I is situated at the South Peak (Mardiasto, 1952; Semeru Harto, 1962; see Kusumadinata 1979; Manalu, 1986), whereas crater IV is located at the North Peak. Crater III is positioned in the saddle between the two peaks. Due to the continues activity crater IV, as the main crater, was formed inside the crater I. In 1996, both craters I and IV have been fully occupied by a lava dome. Karangetang Volcano has also flank craters, two in the south (+ 100 m and + 800 m) and one in the northwest (+ 950 m) slopes. The first two craters were formed during eruptions on September 15 and17, 1979 (Manalu, 1986), while the third one was on May 31, 1979(Pardyanto, 1981), and is known as Batubulan crater. …
Conservation:

GOVERMENT ADMINISTRATION


Province North Sulawesi
City / Regency Kabupaten Kepulauan Siau Tagulandang Biaro
Distrik
  1. kecamatan Siau Barat Utara
  2. kecamatan Siau Timur
Village 1.1 Desa Mini; 1.2 Desa Nameng; 1.3 Desa Kawahang; 1.4 Desa Kiawang; 1.5 Desa Kinali;

2.1 Desa Apelawo; 2.2 Desa Lia;  2.3 Desa Kanang; 2.4 Desa Dame; Desa Tatahadeng

PHISICAL CONDITION


Shape;
Stratovolcano
Condition;
a vulcano / active
History of eruption;
1675; An explosive eruption occurred from the Main Crater
1712; January 16, an explosive eruption from the Main Crater, its eruption was heard in Ternate
1825; Normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1864; June 16, a normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1883; August 25-26, normal explosive eruption from Main Crater, formation of North Crater needs (Kawah II)
1886; Increased activity, the need for the formation of Kawah III (KIII).
1887; May 27, a normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1892; June 14, a normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater, after being preceded by an earthquake on June 12.
1899; Normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1900; Normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1905; 21, May 22, ejects falling ash in the western part of Karangetang Volcano.
1921; March, Normal explosive eruption from Main Crater. Crater IV is a crater lake with an air temperature of 80 ° C and a sulfuric aroma. The active V crater releases incandescent lava.
1922; May 9 or 10, increasing activity, visible fires above the crater. May-June eruption period. On August 14, an eruption from IV Crater that issued ash and volcanic bombs, which fell around the crater.
1924; May, normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1926; October, normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1930; 4, 6 February, eruption of the South Crater (Kawah IV), there was an earthquake.
1935; August 31, a normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1940; 1, 2, and 9 March, a normal explosive eruption of the Main Crater, 1 person died, 2 people were injured and hundreds of coconut trees were destroyed.
1941; 29 or 30 October, an earthquake occurred at 00:35, then followed by an eruption that lasted until 10:00. Lapili mixed ash fell in Ondong, Lehi, Hiung, Kiawang, Batubulan and Nameng, resulting in injuries.
1947; February 9, December 1 – 15, December 21, a normal explosive eruption from the Main Crater
1949; September 14, an earthquake occurred at 5:00 a.m., then followed by an eruption of ash at 5:00 p.m.
1950; July, eruption of ash as high as 300 m; December 18, eruption of ash as high as 250 m
1952; Eruptions occur in the Main Crater and North Crater (Crater II) and Crater III.
1961; There were several large and small eruptions that began on February 17. The height of the column as fast as 2000 m, the flight bomb throw 500 m from the crater. Lapili material is released between 1 – 2 km. Large eruptions that occur are often preceded by an earthquake.
1962; January 29, eruption of ash as high as 2000 m; February 2, a large eruption, emitting incandescent and lightning volcanic material, and as soon as black light; May 29, large eruption with columns as high as 2000 m; September 14, incandescent lava. High as fast as 3000 m. Three hours earlier there was an earthquake; December 13, there was cold lava due to heavy rain at the peak, road problems were damaged, 5 houses were damaged and 5 others were damaged in Ulu and Tarorane.
1963; January, erupting as fast as 300 – 400 m. During the eruption period, scrubs were released from volcanic incandescent lava dams.
1965; April – May, there is a burst of incandescent lava around the crater and ash eruption; August, there were several eruptions, maximum smoke height of 900 m.
27 and 30 October, there was an eruption with a burst of incandescent material and smoke as high as 1000 m, resulting in two people injured.
1966; January, erupting as soon as 2000 m; April, eruption of smoke and lava flow around the crater
1967; January 7, eruption as quickly as 100-200 m; January 13, there was a feeling of earthquake causing damage to people’s homes in Ondong, Kanawong, and Ulu Siau; January 16, incandescent and lava material around the crater; June, bursts of incandescent material around the crater; November 29, a large eruption emits incandescent material and is associated with hot cloud clouds
1970-1971; Improvement activities began at the end of December 1970. Rumbling sounds were continuously heard, as fast as white light, rays and fire rays as high as 200 m above the peak. February, More new lava meets the crater hole. Bombs and lapili scattered around the crater.
1974: 11-23 February, at night there was a fire and a burst of incandescent lava. Lava flows occur to the south and southwest as far as 1 km. The lava dome in the Main Crater is estimated to reach 12 million m3. Until April tectonic earthquakes (felt) almost every day, which caused damage to buildings and landslides, 3 people died
1975; 15, 17 and 21 January, there was a large eruption which spewed ash reaching a height of 600 m, followed by a burst of incandescent lava (strombolian type eruption).1976; September 15 and 17 there was a side eruption forming 2 (two) points on Bukit Areng Kambing, the southern slope of the peak. The eruption point that occurred on September 15 took place at an altitude of 1000 m, while what happened on September 17 at an altitude of 850 m; The side eruption with the lava flow beginning with tectonic earthquake was felt since August. The earthquake felt this continued to increase, even reaching 120 events per day. And lasted until mid-September; September 15, at 7:00 a eruption occurred, a puff of smoke reached a height of 500, then in the afternoon there was a lava flow; September 17, a small eruption, 300 m south of the September 15 eruption hole, followed by a lava flow and its flow united with the previous lava flow. The lava tunnel stopped on October 23, reaching a length of 7 km from the eruption center. The incident resulted in the death of one person and one person injured as a result of being sprayed with hot clouds of incandescent lava avalanches while watching lava flowing at night.
1978; A new crater appears above Batu Bulan Village, known as the Maralebuhe Crater.
1983; Increased activity
1984; Lava flows from the Main Crater, flow to Kali Beha (West), Kali Keting (East), Kali Batuawang (South). September 5, hot clouds littered to Kali Keting, Batuawang and Kali Beha. 20, 21 October bursts of incandescent lava continuously accompanied by rumbling sounds. November 7, an increase in activities centered on the Central Crater and Crater III. November 27, large explosive eruption.
1985; Leleran lava continues to exit from the new Arengkambing activity center, Main Crater and Crater III to Kali Beha, Kali Keting and Kali Batuawang. On December 31, there was a hot cloud of falling into Keting River.
1986; Alirang lava to Kali Keting continues, and January 19, there is a lava flow deviation at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level.
1987; Rumbling sounds like jet planes and smoke eruptions occur throughout the year. On February 6, there was a burst of incandescent material accompanied by hot clouds as far as approximately 1,500 m.
1988; January – February occurred incandescent lava bursts; August 18-20, eruption with a strong roar; October 25 a strong eruption followed by lava vomit and crashed into a pile of lava that had appeared all this time, causing a hot cloud to collapse
1989; January 10-12, February there is a lava flow of 750 m; March occurred incandescent bursts of lava; 9 and 22 May the lava flows into Kali Beha; August 8 part of the lava tongue falls and hot clouds occur
1990 2, 6, 8, 11 and 19 September there were bursts and slides of incandescent material to Kali Keting and Kali Beha; October 6 and 13 there is a rather strong eruption with smoke as high as approximately 1,500 m; In November there was a lava flow observed as far as approximately 250m.
1991; February, there was a smoke eruption which was followed by 750 m of lava towards the Hiung River; June, there was an eruption accompanied by flares of incandescent material which lasted until August.
1992; February, ash eruption; May, there was a lava flow to East Beha River which was accompanied by a cloud of heat, which resulted in 6 (six) deaths and 1 (one) person burned
1993; June, there was a lava in the Kahetang River that struck around the capital of East Siau District, Ulu Siau causing several schools, government offices, religious facilities, meeting halls, police dormitories, roads and bridges to be destroyed
1996; January, there is an ash eruption; February 13, incandescent lava flows from the Main Crater to Keting and to Batuawang River, Kali Beha and Kali Batang lasts until March; June, eruption of ash reaches a height of 1,500 m; July, eruption of ash as high as 2,000 m; August, there is an ash eruption which is followed by a lava flow
1997; March, ash eruptions occur almost every day; April 17, there was an eruption of ash accompanied by strands and lava flows towards Kali Bahembang which lasted until the end of June, the length of the lava reached 3,400 m. The incident resulted in 3 villagers of Dame dying from a cloud of falling heat
1998; On March 5, there began to be a roar from the top, getting stronger every day, and the fire in the Central Crater began to grow. On March 13 the lava flow was seen flowing towards Kali Keting. On March 19, lava grew and widened towards the Kahetang River. The next day there were clouds of heat as far as 1000 m in the Kali Keting Valley; July 15, at 12.17 an explosive eruption from the Central Crater occurred. Ashes rain flushed the villages of Kinali, Hiung, and Kiawang. The thickness of the ashes is unknown because the rain of water followed later
2000; Beginning with the enlargement of the fire in the Main Crater on May 26. On May 27, at 18.15, lava flow to Bahembang River was seen, one lane with Lava 1997. On May 30, there was a strombolian eruption with a strong roar; 27 October an explosive eruption occurs. Eruption smoke reaches a height of 1000 m. Eruption material falls in the east, south and west and causes forest fires around it; November there was an ash eruption followed by a strombolian eruption. Incandescent material thrown as high as 1750 m; November 6 began to appear lava at the top, as if forming a dome.
2001; Throughout the year activities increase; January began to occur lava flow continued from November 2000 activities. Lava flows from the Main Crater and South Crater to the southwest, east and south-landmark to East Beha River, Kahetang River, Batuawang River.
June 25, there was a strong eruption accompanied by clouds of heat from the South Crater and destroyed the southern wall / lip of the South Crater, 1 (one) person was injured by hot air (surge). On June 29, the new dome began to reappear to fill the eruption of June 25 and was known as Kubah 2001. Until the end of the year the new dome had not stopped growing even though it was very slow.
In September there was a lava inside the Kahetang River and struck a number of houses in Tarorane Village and Ulu Siau Terminal. Not fatalities.
2004; Explosive eruption and growth of lava domes
2006; Explosive eruptions, lava flows, hot clouds, and growth of lava domes. Residents around the volcano were evacuated
2008; Explosive eruption that still lasts until July 2009
2009; 6, 7 January, ash eruption; June 1-4, erupting with smoke as high as 700 m, accompanied by a volcanic material slash; November 7, eruption accompanied by a clash to Kali Keting, Kali Kahetang and Batuawang.
2010; March 22, Phreatic eruption is strong accompanied by rain of ash, and causes cold lava in Kali Batuawang and Hulu Odong. The Upper Odong road is cut off and submerged in material as high as 10-75 cm, along 40m; April 1, with the sound of an eruption accompanied by a westward slash (trunk times); August 16, observed a new lava dome at the Peak of the Main Crater; 18-21 several eruptions occur; September 27, an eruption sound was heard accompanied by incandescent lava. A hot cloud was observed towards Batuawang River; October 31, erupting with blackish gray smoke.
Elevation (meters above sea level);
1.827 m  (5.994 ft))
Type of eruption;
As a volcano that is very active, the rest period of Karangetang Volcano is very short, lasts a few months then increases again. In general, the activity starts with a smoke / ash eruption and usually lasts 2 or 3 months. Continued activities include magmatic eruptions (explosive) followed by lava flow (effusive). In some cases, ordinary effusives also occur without being preceded by explosives.

Explosive eruptions are sometimes followed by the hot clouds, but that often happens every time the lava flows always cause clouds of heat. The hot clouds occur due to the accumulation of lava at a point or at the end of the flow and collapse due to gravity. In contrast to the occurrence of clouds of hot plumes at Merapi Volcano which occurred from collapsed domes. Lava in Karangetang Volcano almost always flows even though one day partially builds a dome.

One characteristic of Karangetang Volcano is noteworthy, is the role of tectonic (local) earthquake is very large in driving the occurrence of an eruption.

Topology & Geology;
Temperature;
Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…

SOURCE


website
  1. vsi.esdm.go.id; Agustus 2018
  2. volcano.oregonstate.edu; Agustus 2018
  3. id.wikipedia.org; Agustus 2018
  4. republika.co.id; Agustus 2018
  5. …?
Blog
  1. …?;
PDF
  1. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Geologi (Link; drive.google.com)
 

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