Mt. Bromo

PROFILE;


Maps;  Google Map  Link
(*only for information);
Name:
Mt. Bromo
Note:
Know Bromo certainly will never be separated from Tengger Caldera. The 16-km wide Tengger Caldera is located at the northern tip of a massive volcano that extends from Mount Semeru. The Tengger volcanic complex is estimated to have massive activity around 820,000 years ago. This mountain consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each cut by a caldera. lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and maars that occupy the massive sides. From this caldera comes five volcanoes: Bromo, Widodaren, Chairs, Giri, Batok – but only Bromo is active…
Conservation:
Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park;

GOVERMENT ADMINISTRATION


Province East Java
City / Regency
  1. Kabupaten Pasuruan
  2. Kabupaten Probolinggo
  3. Kabupaten Malang
Distrik 1.1 Kecamatan Tosari;2.1 Kecamatan Sukapura;

3.1 Kecamatan Poncokusumo

Village 1.1.1 Desa Podokoyo; 1.1.2 Desa Mororejo2.1.1 Desa Ngadas (Krajan II)

2.2.1 Desa Ngadas (Jarak ijo)

PHISICAL CONDITION


Shape;
Stratovulcano
Condition;
a vulcano /active
History of eruption;
During the 20th and 21st centuries, Mount Bromo has erupted many times, at regular intervals of 30 years. The largest eruption occurred in 1974, while the last eruption occurred in 2016-present.

History of Bromo eruption: 2015-2016, 2011, 2010, 2004, 2001, 1995, 1984, 1983, 1980, 1972, 19, 1915, 1907, 1908, 1907, 1906, 1907, 1896, 1893, 1890, 1888, 1886, 1887, 1886, 1885, 1886, 1885, 1877, 1867, 1868, 1866, 1865, 1865, 1860, 1858, 1858, 1858, 1857, 1856, 1844, 1843, 1843, 1835, 1830, 1830, 1829, 1825, 1822, 1823, 1820, 1815, 1804, 1775

Elevation (meters above sea level);
2.329 m (7.641 ft)
Type of eruption;
Generally the Strombolian eruption type. The eruption of Bromo is explosive by throwing bombs of volcano, lapilli, sand, and ash which generally affects only around the top. Historically, Bromo has never recorded the flow of lava.

Throughout history, the eruptive character is effusive and explosive from the central crater, whenever eruptions erupt with ash, sand, lapilli, and occasionally catapult lava and volcanic bombs, except for the 1980 activity, at the bottom of the crater a lava plug is formed.

Activities of Mount Bromo at this time generally in the form of gusts of thin white smoke to white thick with a height of about 50 m to 100 m from the crater lip with the direction of blowing generally trending west and northwest. The condition of the smoke of Mount Bromo usually increases when there is high rainfall. It is also related to the eruption characteristic of a phreatic eruption which is the result of contact between magma and the hydrothermal system in place.

The period of eruption can be short-lived only a few days (12 to 14 June 1860), but can also last a month or more continuously. Bromo eruption volcano eruption erratic is the shortest rest period less than a year while the longest rest period of 16 years.

Topology & Geology;
The Tengger Mountains have a long history of volcanoes, starting from 1.4 million years ago (Mulyadi, 1992). The volcano experts named these mountains with the Bromo – Tengger Complex, composed of several volcanic bodies with the main eruption center forming an arc. At the time of its growth, explosive and effusive activities had formed the Nongkojajar cone (1.4 0.2 million years ago), the Ngadisari Cone (822 90 thousand years ago), the Old Tengger Cone (265 40 thousand years ago), the Concish Mask ( unknown age) and Cemoro Lawang Cone (144 – 135 30 thousand years ago).

In large explosive activities, the cones are partially destroyed and the caldera is formed with the oldest sequence to the young as follows:

1. Nongkojajar caldera
2. Kaldera Ngadisari
3. Kiriera Kebiri, and
4. Ocean Sand Crater

The cone of Bromo Volcano is the only post-caldera Sea Sand post center that still exhibits volcanic activity to date. Some cones are inside the Sea of ​​Sand caldera but are no longer active…

Temperature;
Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…

SOURCE


website
  1. vsi.esdm.go.id; june 2018
  2. geomagz.geologi.esdm.go.id; June 2018
  3. id.wikipedia.org; June 2018;
  4. geologi.co.id; June 2018
  5. eastjava.com; June 2018
  6. …?
Blog
  1. …?;
PDF
  1. SISTEM AIR TANAH ENDAPAN VULKANIK LERENG GUNUNG BROMO
    KABUPATEN PROBOLINGGO PROVINSI JAWA TIMUR; Heru Hendrayana*, M. Haris Miftakhul Fajar, Wahyu Wilopo, Teknik Geologi, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada; PROCEEDING, SEMINAR NASIONAL KEBUMIAN KE-8 Academia-Industry Linkage 15-16 OKTOBER 2015; GRHA SABHA PRAMANA (Link; drive.google.com)
  2. IDENTIFIKASI SEDIMEN PIROKLASTIK PADA KAWAH TENGGER GUNUNG BROMO MENGGUNAKAN METODE RESISTIVITAS 2D; Wien Lestari, Anik Hilyah, Firman Syaifuddin, Juan Pandu GNR, Adib Banuboro, Alif Prabawa Arwananda, dan Dara Felisia A, Teknik Geofisika, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember; 2017 (Link; drive.google.com)
 

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